What is an Operating System and Different types of operating Systems

An operating system is system software that works as an interface between users and hardware. It means that if we made a computer by joining different hardware such as screen, keyboard, motherboard, CPU, RAM, ROM, GPU, cooling fan, battery, etc. but it cannot provide an interface without an operating system. In this article we will discussed about operating system types and functions.

In other words, without an operating system, your computer, laptop, or mobile phone is just like a box because it cannot run or operate without an operating system. The operating system is like the soul of your device.

When we install an operating system on our device then it will work. Normally, all devices such as computers, laptops, mobile phones came with a pre-installed operating system. So, we cannot feel it. But when you want to install a new operating system on computers and laptops then when you uninstall the previous operating system the laptop cannot work until the installation of the new operating system.

We can access our computer hardware such as CPU, RAM, ROM, input/output devices, etc. through the operating system. We cannot access hardware directly because hardware cannot understand our instructions or request or language. They will work when the operating system request to work something then it can produce a result.

 If there is not any operating system then a user needs to write a program (Programming Language) to access this device. It means you should write a program whenever you want to access this. So, it is not possible to write a program every time.

So, an operating system is a collection of programs that manage all computer resources. The operating system works as an intermediator between user and hardware.

Functions of an operating system

  1. Memory management: Operating system manages all types of memory which are available on computers and devices such as Random Access Memory (RAM), Read-Only Memory (ROM), Cache memory, etc. An operating system tracks all the activities performing on a device. It also allocates the memory while multi-processing. It performs the task of allocation and deallocation of memory space to programs in need of these resources.
  2. Processor Management: There are multiples actions are performing in a device. An operating system also works as a process scheduling. It tracks activity and process in sequential order. Operating system decides which activity will be processed for how much time, and allocates the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to process different tasks at the same time. Operating system assigns the processer to the different tasks that must be performed by the computer system.
  3. File Management: OS tracks all files and folder’s name, location, size, user, creation date, etc. It also tracks the type of file and folder then opened in related software. Suppose I want to open a word document then it will automatically open in Microsoft word, suppose I want to open a video it will automatically open in VLC media player, etc. It also manages storage for a file, retrieval, sharing, and protection of files.
  4. Security: Operating System also access unauthorized activity on our device. An operating system does not allow access to unauthorized users on your device. An operating system provides a user panel on devices for access to the device. If you had put any security lock such as PIN, Password, etc. Then Operating System does not allow to enter without entering the security lock. So, it implements the security mechanism that secures and protects the computer system internally as well as externally.
  5. Job scheduling and Timesharing: Job scheduling is the process of allocating system resources to the many different tasks by an operating system. It also coordinates and assigns compilers, assemblers, utility programs, and other software packages to various users working on the computer system.

It also manages devices, understands input or instructions and shows output on a computer screen, and communicates with all parts of the device. Some popular examples of operating systems are as follows:

1. Window Operating System

The Window operating system is a Graphical User Interface operating system. In other words, it is an icon-based operating system. Operating system transforms and shows our input instruction or command in Picture form. It means that it provides the environment in the operating system to access all functions in icons, menu, bottoms, etc. such as photoshop, word, notepad, Chrome, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Date and Time, etc.

Window Operating System was developed by Microsoft Corporation in 1985 A.D. This OS used in laptops and computers. Most of the laptops come with Window operating system. Besides, MacBook or Apple laptops, others laptops come with a Window operating system.

In Windows operating system there are features of desktop, taskbar, folder, window media player, disk management, switch off, restart, gadgets, etc. Some of them are in icon form and some of them are in menu or button form. You can easily by clicking on it. So, it is a user-base operating system that is easy to use.

2. Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS)

The Mac operating system is also a Graphical User Interface based operating system. Macintosh OS was developed by Apple Incorporation. Mac OS also provides the functionality and facilities like window operating system but some features are different from window operating system.

This OS is designed to operate Apple manufactured laptops and PCs. In this operating system, you can also access all features of Mac OS in the form of icons, menus, and bottoms.

3. Android Operating System

Android is a mobile operating system that is based on the Linux kernel. Linux Kernel is an open-source operating system. After modifying Linux, the android operating system is developed by an American computer programmer. Android operating system is designed for mobile phones (Especially for touch screen phones or smartphones).

Your phone comes with a pre-installed Android operating system. You can check through your about phone section on your phones. All applications which are available in the Play store are based on the android operating system. So, you can easily download and access these applications on your phone.

The Android operating system is developed by American computer programmer Andy Rubin in 2003. Later it was acquired by Google in 2005. So, now the owner of the Android Operating system is Google Company.

Android Operating system is the most popular mobile phone operating system. Besides iPhone, all mobile phones come with Android operating system. Android-based operating phones are the most selling smartphones in the world.

4. iPhone Operating System (IOS)

iPhone operating system is an operating system that was made by Apple Inc for Apple phones and iPads. After android, IOS is the most popular mobile phone operating system in the world. IOS uses a multitouch interface in which simple gestures are used to operate activities on devices.

You cannot run the android-based application on iPhones. So, there is App Store for iPhones to download various applications. iPhone operating system is more expensive than Android operating system. Besides, iPhones and iPads all phones come with the Android operating system. iPhone operating system is more secure than Android.

5. Linux Operating System

Linux is an operating system like Window, IOS, Android, etc. It also provides an interface between the user and the hardware of the device. Linux operating system is developed by American software engineer Linus Torvalds in 1991. With the help of the operating system, users can interact easily with devices.

Linux is an open-source operating system. That means a developer or computer programmer can modify the source code of Linux with coding and can use it for personal and commercial purposes. Linux is developed for personal computers. Linux operating system is used in servers, supercomputers, Smart TVs, cars, smartwatches, etc.

Advantages of Windows Operating System

  1. Windows Operating system is easy to use. In the windows operating system, you can access files, folders, drives, devices in the icon or bottom or menu form. Suppose I want to access Bluetooth on Windows operating system then I can access it by clicking on the Bluetooth icon easily.
  2. Another important advantage of using windows is you can access software easily. Most of the software are based on windows operating system, so you can easily access software. There are more software available for Windows than for other operating systems.
  3. Windows operating system is compatible with all laptops and you can access any files, folders, programs, etc. easily with another version of Windows operating system.
  4. You can access easily output devices such as mouse, speaker, keyboard, etc. It supports new hardware.
  5. Update feature is available in windows operating system. You can easily update your windows version if you are connected to the internet. This feature increases your device security.
  6. Windows operating is highly available in the market so, it is easy to share files and folders with the network of windows operating system.

Advantages of Linux Operating System

  1. The source code of Linux is easily available for everyone. Linux allowed to modify it according to your need and you can use it freely.
  2. In terms of Security, it is more secure than other operating system because it is less vulnerable and does not require any anti-virus software.
  3. The performance of the Linux operating system is much higher than other operating systems.
  4. It is fast and easy to install from the web. It can also install on any hardware even on old computer system.
  5. The flexibility of Linux Operating system is high. It means you can install only required components and you can also modify it.
  6. If you are programmer and want to makes some changes according to your need. Linux provides this facility for you.
  7. It allows large number of people to work at the same time and it handles them effectively and it is network friendly also. Linux operating system is used on server, supercomputers, smart TVs, Smart Watches.

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